An On-line Interactive Catalog of the Whiteflies
(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of the World
and Their Parasites and Predators
Gregory A. Evans and Avas B. Hamon
Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA)
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Servicies
Gainesville, Florida, USA
1. Whitefly Taxonomic Database
2. Parasite/Predator Taxonomic Database
3. Whitefly Distribution and Plant Host Database
4. Parasite/Predator Distribution and Whitefly Host Database
Keys and Tables
Key to Parasite Genera Associated with Whiteflies
Key to Encarsia species groups
Table 1. Eretmocerus species-groups
Specimen Collection and Preparation
Whitefly Collection and Specimen Preparation
Parasite Collection and Specimen Preparation
The Whitefly Taxonomic and Ecological Website was created to make taxonomic and ecological information on whiteflies and their natural enemies available to anyone in the world with access to the internet. The website brings together literature and collection records on the taxonomy and distribution of whiteflies and their parasites and predators, host plants for whitefly species, parasites and predators associated with whitefly species and includes reference citations.
Information contained in the website was gathered from various sources. Much of the information prior to 1979 was extracted from Mound and Halsey's 1978 publication - Whitefly of the World. A systematic catalog of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. In addition, taxonomic and ecological information of whiteflies was added from literature published after 1978, collection records of whiteflies identified by Avas Hamon and in the FSCA specimen database, and collection records of parasites sent to Gregory Evans for identification. Much of the information on whitefly predators was provided by David Dean. Bruce D. Sutton transferred the database to the web-based format, designed the search forms, the result tables and detail screens, and made it accessible via the internet. Special thanks to the National Biological Control Institute (USDA/APHIS) for their suppport.
The website is continually under construction as new species of whiteflies and parasitoids and new ecological data are discovered and published. Due to time constraints, information for certain species is incomplete and will be added as the website is updated. For example, host plant and distribution data for Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, two very polyphagous and widespread species, has not yet been added, but are listed as "polyphagous" in the plant genus field, and "worldwide" in the distribution field. Also, the collection data for type specimen(s) for many of the whitefly species includes only the country and host plant, and there is only limited data on the taxonomy and distribution of the whitefly predators.
Using the Website
There are four search screens that you can choose from depending upon what information you seek.
This database includes information on the taxonomy of the whitefly parasite and predator species - the cited name; valid name; family, order, and species group placement (if applicable); feeding habit (parasite, hyperparasitoid, predator, fungus); status, nomenclatural changes; type specimen(s) collection data; museum deposition; country and region from where it was described, a summary of its distribution, and reference citations.
Click on the Citation Link in the Search Results table for the full citation.
Examples for Searching the Website
Data can be searched on a one or more of a variety of parameters.
1. If you are unable to find information on a certain whitefly species, the name you are using may not be valid.
Select the whitefly taxonomic database and search:
Cited Name: Bemisia hibisci Takahashi
2. You want to know the various parasitoid species described in the
Select the Parasitoid/Predator Taxonomic Database and search:
3. You want to know the plant hosts for Tetraleurodes acaciae
recorded in the USA
Select the Whitefly Distribution and Plant Host Database and search:
or use the distribution summary field
4. You want to know the whitefly hosts of Encarsia formosa Gahan
Select the Parasite/Predator Distribution and Whitefly Host Database and search:
Codes for Geographic Regions of the World
Example: To search for all the Eretmocerus species described from the Ethiopian region.
- 1- Nearctic (USA, Canada)
- 2- Neotropical (Mexico, Central and South America, Caribbean)
- 3- Western Palearctic (includes Europe; North Africa (Mediterranean); former USSR, Middle East, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Azores).
- 4- Ethiopian (includes Africa south of the Mediterranean countries, Madagascar and the Canary and Madeira Islands).
- 5- Eastern Palearctic (includes Eastern Asia) - China, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan
- 6- Oriental (India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia).
- 7- Australasia (Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea).
- 8- New Zealand and Pacific Islands (Caroline Islands, Guam).
- 9- Hawaii.
- 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 - Worldwide
Searching the Distribution Field
This field summarizes the distribution of whitefly and parasitoid/predators. To search for all of the species recorded from a certain region type the region number into the Distribution Field. Example: to retrieve all Nearctic records of Trialeurodes select the Whitefly Ecological Database and type:
Genus : Trialeurodes
To search the distribution field for all records from a certain country,
type the name of the country into the Distribution field.
Please send your comments and suggestions to:
Last modified: November 5, 2002