KEY TO PARASITOID GENERA ASSOCIATED WITH ALEYRODIDAE

                Gregory A. Evans

To view illustrations of the genera you will need the DjVu browser plug-in. Following the links will automatically install or upgrade the plug-in. Click here for illustrations and terminology of morphological characters.
 

1.         Fore wing with marginal and stigmal veins absent; pronotum reaching tegula;
            body entirely black and heavily sclerotized; female antennal flagellum 8-segmented,
            consisting of 5 funicle segments and 3-segmented compact club; tarsi 5-5-5.
            (Superfamily Platygastroidea).......................................................................2
1b.       Fore wing with marginal and stigmal veins present, pronotum separated from tegula
            by prepectus, male and female flagellum with 1-9 segments; body usually not entirely
            black and heavily sclerotized; tarsi 5-5-5, 4-4-4, or rarely 5-4-5.
            (Superfamily Chalcidoidea)...........................................................................3

2(1)     Fore wing without submarginal vein; body with few setae; male antennal flagellum
            with 7 funicle segments, one club segment and F2 with tongue-shaped sensory
            organ.....................................................................................................Amitus
                           Distibution: 21 species - Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, Oriental, Hawaii
                           Host: Mostly Aleyrodinae,1 species from Aleurodicinae
2b.       Fore wing with submarginal vein; body with many setae; male antennal flagellum
            with 5 funicle segments, 3 fused club segments and F2 without tongue-shaped
            sensory organ..................................................................................Aleyroctonus
                           Distibution: 2 species - Australiasian.  Host: Aleurodicinae

3(1).     All tarsi 4-segmented..............................................................................................4
3b.        All tarsi usually 5-segmented, middle leg tarsus 4-segmented in some Encarsia..12

4(3).     Fore wing narrow, disk length 2x maximum disk width with a row of setae
             along the wing margin and 1-2 rows transversing the disk; antennal flagellum
             consisting of 2 funicle (one transverse and one cylindrical) and 1 elongate club
             segment; male antennal flagellum with 1 funicle and 1 elongate club segment.
             .................................................................................................................Cales
                       Distribution: 3 species - Neotropical, Australasian, 1 introduced to Europe. Host: Aleyrodinae
4b.        Fore wing broad, disk length usually as long as, or shorter than maximum disk
             width and with many setae evenly distributed throughout disk; antennal flagellum
             variable................................................................................................................5

5(4b).     Antennal flagellum 3-segmented consisting of 2 short funicle segments and 1
              elongate club segment; body usually yellowish; male antennal flagellum
              consisting of 1 very elongate club segment.....................................Eretmocerus
                       Distribution: 62 species - worldwide. Host: Aleyrodinae
5b.         Antennal flagellum with more than 3 segments, most similar in size and shape;
              club 3-4 segmented body usually not yellowish; male antennal club 2-4
              segmented..........................................................................................................6

6(5b)     Antenna with 4-segmented club and 5 funicle segments; mesoscutum as long as
              scutellum; stigmal vein extremely short. (Pteromalidae)....................Idioporus
                      Distribution: 1 species - Neotropical. Host: Aleurodicinae: Aleurodicus dugesii
6b.         Antenna with 3-segmented club and 1-2 funicle segments; mesoscutum longer
              than scutellum; stigmal vein long Eulophidae......................................................7

7(6b)        Scutellum with 1 or 2 pairs of setae and distinctly wider than long; midlobe
                 of mesoscutum usually with 1-2 pairs of setae; submarginal vein with 1-2
                 setae.......................................................Euderomphale group..........................8
                  Distribution: Worldwide. Host: Aleyrodinae.
7b.            Scutellum and midlobe of mesoscutum with many setae and usually not
                 distinctly wider than long; submarginal vein with more than 2 setae;
                 ...........................................................Entedononecremnus group...................10
                        Distribution: Neotropical. Host: Aleurodicinae.

8(7)         Axilla large and clearly separated from mesoscutum by complete sutures;
                scutellum with 2 pairs of setae; antenna with 2 funicle segments
                .....................................................................................................Euderomphale
                        Distribution: 14 species - Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental. Host: Aleyrodinae.
8b.         Axilla fused to mesoscutum, scutellum with 1 pair of setae; antenna with 1
              funicle segment (small anelli/ring segments maybe present)................................9

9(8b)    Submarginal vein with 2 setae; F1 cylindrical (longer than wide); mesosoma
             sculpture usually smooth; common species N. aleurothrixi with yellow body
             with transverse bands on apical gastral tergites IV-VI and from Aleurothrixus floccosus
              ...........................................................................................................Neopomphale
                        Distribution: 3 species - Nearctic, Neotropical. Host: Aleyrodinae
9b.        Submarginal vein with 1 setae; F1 transverse (wider than long); mesosoma
             sculpture with raised reticulations; body metallic purple........................Pomphale
                       Distribution: 2 species - Oriental. Host: Aleyrodinae

10(7b)  F2 distinctly longer than wide and about 2x as long as F1; eyes bare.
              ........................................................................................Entedononecremnus
                            Distribution: 2 species - Nearctic, Neotropical. Host: Aleurodicinae
10b.      F2 transverse and about as long as F1; eyes with many small setae........................ 11

11(10b) Gaster dark with yellow to white base; postmarginal vein shorter than stigmal vein;
              submarginal vein setae long..................................................................Aleurotonus
                        Distribution: 1 species - Nearctic, Neotropical. Host: Aleurodicinae: Aleurodicus
11b.       Gaster entirely dark; postmarginal vein as long or longer than stigmal vein;
              submarginal vein setae short.................................................................Dasyomphale
                        Distribution: 1 species - Neotropical. Host: Aleurodicinae

12(3b). Antennal flagellum 4-segmented consisting of 3 transverse funicle segments and
             one elongate club segment; fore wing disk asetose; scutellum rectangular, width at
            least 4x its length; hyperparasitoids (Signiphoridae)...............................Signiphora
                        Distribution: 4 species as hyperparasites through Aleyrodinae in Nearctic, Neotropics
12b.     Antennal flagellum with more than 4 segments; apical segment not greatly
            elongate; forewing disk setose; scutellum oval.....................................................13

13(12b) Antennal flagellum 11-segmented with 6 funicle and 3 club segments; marginal
              vein shorter than stigmal vein; male antennae 9-segmented (Encyrtidae)..Metaphycus
                            Distribution: Many species but only 1-3 undescribed Neotropical species from Aleyrodinae
13b.     Antennal flagellum 5 or 6-segmented, marginal vein long, distinctly longer than
            stigmal vein...........................................................................................................14

14(13b) Antennae flagellum 5 segmented and usually multicolored; fore wing with
              infuscate and hyaline areas, usually extending into the fore wing disk; male
              antenna with small ring segment between F2 and F4................................ Ablerus
                            Distribution: 88 species but 9 species known as hyperparasites through Aleyrodinae.
                            Host: hyperparasites through Aleyrodinae and other families and orders of insects.
14b.     Antennal flagellum 6-segmented, sometimes 5 segmented in males) and
            unicolorous; fore wing with without infuscate and hyaline areas (some
            Encarsia with dark area under marginal vein, but not extending into disk);
            male antenna without small ring segment...............................................................15

15(14b) Mesoscutum with few setae (less than 20) arranged in bilateral symmetry;
              scutellum distinctly wider than long; axillae short, separated from each other
              by more than maximum length of axilla.....................................................Encarsia
                        Distribution: Over 200 species, 158 species known from Aleyrodidae
15b.     Mesoscutum with many scattered setae (more than 20); scutellum circular;
            axillae long, separated from each other by less than maximum length of axilla.....16

16(15b) Placoid sensillae of scutellum placed close to each other, separated by about
              the diameter of one sensillum; side lobes divided; sculpture of mesoscutum
              aciculate......................................................................................................Dirphys
                        Distribution: 6 species -Neotropical. Host: Aleurodicinae.
16b.      Placoid sensillae of scutellum widely separated; side lobes not divided;
             sculpture of mesoscutum imbricate/reticulate........................................Encarsiella
                        Distribution: 12 species, worldwide but mostly Neotropical. Host: Aleurodicinae
   (1 species known from Aleyrodinae)