All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory - Great Smoky Mountains National Park

 

Diptera - Fruit flies


Eutreta caliptera Say


Photograph by Jeffrey Lotz - FDACS/DPI

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Animalia

Arthropoda

Insecta

Diptera

Tephritidae

Animals

Arthropods

Insects

Flies

Fruit flies

 


 

SPECIES DESCRIPTION

Size: 5.5 - 8.0 mm long from antennae to tip of wings.
Wing pattern: Brownish-black with numerous, fine, clear speckles throughout and a narrow, complete, unpigmented arc at wing tip.
Body color: : Brownish-black.
Oviscape: Orangish-brown to brown with a dark ring around tip, about 1.1-1.2 mm long, tapered to a broadly truncate tip.

Photographs:

Eutreta caliptera Adult Female, Metcalf Bottoms, August 2002, Photograph by Jeffrey Lotz - FDACS/DPI.
Eutreta caliptera Opened gall with larva in Erichtites hieraciifolia, Metcalf Bottoms, August 2002, Photograph by Gary J. Steck.

Similar species:

Eutreta caliptera is difficult to differentiate from its sister species E. novaeboracensis but can be distinguished by its smaller size and less sharply angled aculeus tip. It is more easily distinguished from Eutreta rotundipennis which has the hyaline arc at the wing tip broken by narrow rays.

DISTRIBUTION:
(GSMNP in green)

Eutreta caliptera is widely distributed from the Mississippi River Valley eastward reaching its southern limits along the northern Gulf coast to Alachua County Florida.

 

 

 In Park:

Metcalf Bottoms and The Purchase. A previous record from Clingmans Dome (Blanc 1995).

 

 HOST PLANTS:

Forms galls in various Asteraceae. Specimens were reared from small, round, aerial stem galls in Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC (Asteraceae) from Metcalf Bottoms (tentative host id.).

 NATURAL HISTORY

 Habitat:

 Low to high elevation open woodlands especially near small streams or damp areas.

Phenology

Puparia in galls and free-flying adults are present in August in GSMNP. Stolzfus (1977) reported flight times from March to September in other parts of the range, where it is bivoltine. The galls found in Erechtites hieraciifolia are presumed to be from the summer generation. Host(s) for the overwintering generation are unknown.

 Breeding and Courtship:

 In laboratory studies, flies courted and mated on the host plant, and copulations were repeated over several days (Stoltzfus 1977).

 Oviposition and Immature Stages:

 Unknown.

 Predators and Parasites:

 Unknown.

 Community Ecology:

 Unknown.

 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY:

Populations of this fly depend on maintenance of its host plant populations, which, in turn, require regular disturbances to maintain open forests and edges.

 Special Protection Status:

- Rangewide: None

- In Park: All plants and animals are protected within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Collection requires a permit which is usually granted only for research or educational purposes.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 Text:

Gary J. Steck, Ph.D., Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville
Bruce D. Sutton, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville

Photographs:

Jeffrey Lotz, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Gainesville
Gary J. Steck, Ph.D., Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville

Web Page Development:

Bruce D. Sutton, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville

REFERENCES

Blanc, F. L. 1995. Accumulated collection data on the Tephritidae of North America north of Mexico. Unpublished database. Part of data used for distribution maps in Foote et al. 1993.
Foote, R. H., F. L. Blanc, and A. L. Norrbom. 1993. Handbook of the fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America north of Mexico. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 571 pp.
Stoltzfus, W. B. 1977. The taxonomy and biology of Eutreta (Diptera: Tephritidae). Iowa State Journal of Research 51: 369-438.

GLOSSARY

aculeus - the needle-like ovipositor, or egg-laying structure, of female tephritid flies.
oviposition - The act of laying eggs.
oviscape - The hardened sheath enclosing the needle-like ovipositor, or egg-laying structure, of female tephritid flies.
puparium - The hardened, cocoon-like structure, unique to Diptera, which develops from the cast 3rd instar skin, within which metamorphosis from pupa to adult takes place.
bivoltine - Having two generations per year.


Please send any questions or comments to G. J. Steck or B. D. Sutton

Last Updated: October 30, 2002