Introduction


The longhorn beetles comprise one of the largest families of Coleoptera, with more than 20,000 species known worldwide and 900 species in 300 genera from North America. They are an important component of the biodiversity in almost any forested habitat, although the nocturnal period of activity of most and the camouflage of many often make them less conspicuous than some other insects in the same habitats. Nevertheless, many are colorful or strikingly marked and the family is a favorite of many beetle collectors.

Whether that popularity with collectors has led to increased taxonomic interest in the family or increased taxonomic interest has led to greater popularity with collectors is really beside the point, which is that longhorn beetles are among the taxonomically best-known major beetle families in North America and identification aids are readily available; see the Bibliography below for references with particular relevance to Florida. Because information on the family is so readily available, this introductory material will be brief.

This website grew directly out of efforts at the Florida State Collection of Arthropods in the past few decades to document the arthropod fauna of the state (see publications list), and especially out of the Florida beetle checklist by Stewart Peck and the senior author. The development of the Auto-Montage digital photographic system by Syncroscopy was the technological breakthrough that allowed a website such as this one to be put together with moderate effort and within a reasonable timeframe.

The Florida Fauna

Florida has a somewhat depauperate fauna compared to more continental states; still, this website covers 234 species, of which nine are doubtfully present in the state and one has clearly been accidentally introduced from Asia. Interest in the longhorn beetles of Florida since the 1970s and the presence in the state during that time of several residential collectors means that most of Florida has been fairly well surveyed, although knowledge of the fauna in the Panhandle has lagged behind that of the rest of the state.

Florida is an interesting amalgamation of faunas and this is clearly seen in the cerambycids. The extreme northern part of the state marks the southern limits of an Appalachian fauna that is otherwise widely distributed in the East. The members of the genus Saperda are examples of this fauna. The central part of the state has the smallest number of species which are a combination of widespread Eastern longhorns with an interesting admixture of endemic species; examples include Plesioclytus relictus Giesbert, Romulus globosus Knull, Enaphalodes archboldi Lingafelter and Chemsak, and Aethecerinus hornii (Lacordaire).

The extreme southern part of the state, and especially the Florida Keys, has a distinctly tropical fauna, with many West Indian species, such as Eburia cinereopilosa Fisher, Elaphidion cryptum Linsley, Euryscelis suturalis (Olivier), Trachyderes (Dendrobias) mandibularis Dupont, Alcidion umbraticum (Du Val), Ataxia spinicauda Schaeffer, Lagocheirus aranaeformis stroheckeri Dillon, Stenodontes (Stenodontes) chevrolati Gahan, and Elateropsis scabrosus (Gahan). There are even some apparent endemic South Florida species, including Eburia stroheckeri Knull and Heterachthes sablensis Blatchley.

Specimen Preparation

This is a good place to put in a plug for proper specimen preparation for cerambycids. Beetles as a rule take little special preparation compared to some other insects; just jam a pin through the right elytron and you're done. Longhorn beetles, though, require a bit more work if the collector has any regard for efficient curation and specimen safety. Note the picture below of two specimens of the Neotropical harlequin beetle, Acrocinus longimanus (L.):



The bottom specimen pretty much takes up an entire quarter-drawer unit tray, while 8-10 beetles mounted like the top specimen would fit in the same unit tray. The legs and antennae also are much less subject to breakage when they are tucked in close to the body. Preparing longhorn beetles in this manner is somewhat time-consuming (probably comparable to spreading Lepidoptera) and takes a lot of pins, but it is well worth the effort.



Bibliography

CHEMSAK, J. A. 1996. Illustrated revision of the Cerambycidae of North America. Volume I. Parandrinae, Spondylidinae, Aseminae, Prioninae. Wolfsgarden Books. Burbank, CA, 131 pp.

CHEMSAK, J. A. 1999. Revision of the genus Phaea Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Occasional Papers of the Consortium Coleopterorum 3: 36-101.

CHEMSAK, J. A. and E. G. LINSLEY. 1965. New genera and species of North American Cerambycidae. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 41: 141-153.

GIESBERT, E. F. 1993. A new genus and species of clytine cerambycid (Coleoptera) from Florida. Insecta Mundi 7(3): 129-131.

GIESBERT, E. F. and J. A. CHEMSAK. 1989. The genus Stenosphenus Haldeman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65: 269-301.

GIESBERT, E. F. and J. A. CHEMSAK. 1993. A review of the Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of North and Central America. Insecta Mundi 7: 27-64.

GIESBERT, E. F. and J. A. CHEMSAK. 1997. A review of the genus Euderces LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae; Tillomorphini). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 49: 211-286.

LAMPERT, L.L., JR. 1977. Notes on Aneflomorpha delongi (Champlain and Knull) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 31(1): 82.

LINGAFELTER, S. W. 1998. The genera of Elaphidiini Thomson 1864 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington No. 20, 118 pp.

LINSLEY, E. G. 1961. The Cerambycidae of North America. Part I. Introduction. University of California Publications in Entomology 18: 1-97, 35 pls.

LINSLEY, E. G. 1962a. The Cerambycidae of North America. Part II. Taxonomy and classification of the Parandrinae, Prioninae, Spondylinae, and Aseminae. University of California Publications in Entomology 19: 1-102, 1 pl.

LINSLEY, E. G. 1962b. The Cerambycidae of North America. Part III. Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Cerambycinae, tribes Opsimini through Megaderini. University of California Publications in Entomology 20: 1-188.

LINSLEY, E. G. 1963. The Cerambycidae of North America. Part IV. Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Cerambycinae, tribes Elaphidionini through Rhinotragini. University of California Publications in Entomology 21: 1-165.

LINSLEY, E. G. 1964. The Cerambycidae of North America. Part V. Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Cerambycinae, tribes Callichromatini through Ancylocerini. University of California Publications in Entomology 22: 1-197.

LINSLEY, E. G. and J. A. CHEMSAK. 1972. Cerambycidae of North America. Part VI, No. 1. Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lepturinae. University of California Publications in Entomology 69: 1-138, 2 pls.

LINSLEY, E. G. and J. A. CHEMSAK. 1976. Cerambycidae of North America. Part VI. No. 2: Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lepturinae. University of California Publications in Entomology 80: 1-186.

LINSLEY, E. G. and J. A. CHEMSAK. 1984. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. University of California Publications in Entomology 102: 1-258.

LINSLEY, E. G. and J. A. CHEMSAK. 1995. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 2: Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Acanthocinini through Hemilophini. University of California Publications in Entomology 114: 1-292.

LINSLEY, E. G. and J. A. CHEMSAK. 1997. The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VIII: Bibliography, index, and host plant index. University of California in Publications Entomology 117: 1-534.

MACRAE, T. C. 2000. Review of the genus Purpuricenus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in North America. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 76: 137-169.

MONNÉ, M. A. and E. F. GIESBERT. 1994. Checklist of the Cerambycidae and Disteniidae (Coleoptera) of the Western Hemisphere. Wolfsgarden Books. Burbank, CA, 409 pp. (PDF downloadable version updated through May 31, 2003 available at:
http://www.hovore.com/cerambycidae.htm#Free%20Electronic%20Checklists%20for%20download)

MORRIS, R. F., II. 2004. Distribution and biological notes for some Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) ocurring in the southeastern United States. Insecta Mundi 16(4): 209-213.

PALMER, W.A. AND A.J. TOMLEY. 1993. The host range and biology of Amniscus perplexus Haldeman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a candidate evaluated for the biological control of Baccharis halimifolia in Australia. Coleopterists Bulletin 47(1): 27-34.

SCHIEFER, T. L. 2000. A new species of Astylopsis Casey (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) from the southeastern United States. Coleopterists Bulletin 54: 533-539.

SKILES, D. D. 1985. New genera and species of elaphidionine Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from North America and the West Indies. Coleopterists Bulletin 39: 305-320.

SOLOMON, J. D. 1995. Guide to insect borers of North American broadleaf trees and shrubs. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 706. Washington, DC.

THOMAS, M.C. 1977. New host records and behavior observations on Florida Cerambycidae. Coleopterists Bulletin 31:83- 86.

THOMAS, M.C. 1991. Rediscovery of Romulus globosus Knull (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Insecta Mundi 5: 127-128.

THOMAS, M.C. 1999. The genus Eburia Audinet-Serville in Florida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Division of Plant Industry Entomology Circular 396: 1-4.

TURNBOW, R. H. and M. C. THOMAS. 2002. Family 120. Cerambycidae Leach 1815. Pp. 568-601 In: Arnett, R. H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley, and J. H. Frank (editors). 2002. American Beetles. Vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press, Boca Raton. xiv + 861pp.

TURNBOW, R.H. JR., and F.T. HOVORE. 1979. Notes on Cerambycidae from the southeastern United States. Entomological News 90(5): 219 - 229.

TYSON, W.H. 1973. The Spalacopsis of the West Indies and America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 27(3): 117-137.

YANEGA, D. 1996. Field guide to northeastern longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Illinois Natural History Survey Manual 6, 174 pp., 32 pls.